Henri Becquerel

Radioactive Radiation and it’s Mysterying Affects lecture Nobel Prize paper by Henri Becquerel free PDF Download. Must read.


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(/ˌbɛkəˈrɛl/;[2] French: [ɑ̃ʁi bɛkʁɛl]; 15 December 1852 – 25 August 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and the first person to discover evidence of radioactivity. For work in this field he, along with Marie Skłodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie,[3] received the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics. The SI unit for radioactivity, the becquerel (Bq), is named after him.


Describing them to the French Academy of Sciences on 27 February 1896, he said:

One wraps a Lumière photographic plate with a bromide emulsion in two sheets of very thick black paper, such that the plate does not become clouded upon being exposed to the sun for a day. One places on the sheet of paper, on the outside, a slab of the phosphorescent substance, and one exposes the whole to the sun for several hours. When one then develops the photographic plate, one recognizes that the silhouette of the phosphorescent substance appears in black on the negative. If one places between the phosphorescent substance and the paper a piece of money or a metal screen pierced with a cut-out design, one sees the image of these objects appear on the negative … One must conclude from these experiments that the phosphorescent substance in question emits rays which pass through the opaque paper and reduce silver salts.[16][17]

Late career

Later in his life in 1900, Becquerel measured the properties of Beta Particles,

and he realized that they had the same measurements as high speed electrons leaving the nucleus.

[5][7] In 1901 Becquerel made the discovery that radioactivity could be used for medicine.

Henri made this discovery when he left a piece of radium in his vest pocket and noticed that he had been burnt by it. This discovery led to the development of radiotherapy which is now used to treat cancer.

[5] Becquerel did not survive much longer after his discovery of radioactivity and died on 25 August 1908, at the age of 55, in Le Croisic, France.[8]

His death was caused by unknown causes,

but was reported that “he had developed

serious burns on his skin,

likely from the handling of radioactive materials.”[20]

As with every International System of Units (SI) unit named for a person, the first letter of its symbol is uppercase (Bq). However, when an SI unit is spelled out in English, it should always begin with a lowercase letter (becquerel)—except in a situation where any word in that position would be capitalized, such as at the beginning of a sentence or in material using title case.[2]

The gray (Gy) and the becquerel (Bq) were introduced in 1975.[5] Between 1953 and 1975,

absorbed dose was often measured in rads.

Decay activity was measured in curies

before 1946 and often in rutherfords between 1946[6] and 1975.

Like any SI unit, Bq can be prefixed; commonly used multiples are kBq (kilobecquerel, 103 Bq), MBq (megabecquerel, 106 Bq, equivalent to 1 rutherford), GBq (gigabecquerel, 109 Bq), TBq (terabecquerel, 1012 Bq), and PBq (petabecquerel, 1015 Bq). For practical applications, 1 Bq is a small unit; therefore, the prefixes are common. For example, the roughly 0.0169 g of potassium-40 present in a typical human body produces approximately 4,400 disintegrations per second or 4.4 kBq of activity.[7] The global inventory of carbon-14 is estimated to be 8.5×1018 Bq (8.5 EBq, 8.5 exabecquerel).[8] The nuclear explosion in Hiroshima (an explosion of 16 kt or 67 TJ) is estimated to have produced 8×1024 Bq (8 YBq, 8 yottabecquerel).[9] Note: These examples are useful for comparing the amount activity of these radioactive materials

but should not be confused with the amount of exposure to ionizing radiation

that these materials represent.

The level of exposure and thus the absorbed dose received are what should be considered when assessing the effects of ionizing radiation on humans.

The becquerel succeeded the curie (Ci),

[10] an older, non-SI unit of radioactivity based on the activity of 1 gram of radium-226. The curie is defined as 3.7·1010 s−1, or 37 GBq.[3]

Conversion factors:

1 Ci = 3.7×1010 Bq = 37 GBq

1 μCi = 37,000 Bq = 37 kBq

1 Bq = 2.7×10−11 Ci = 2.7×10−5 μCi

1 MBq = 0.027 mCi

Calculation of

Graphic showing relationships between radioactivity and detected ionizing radiation

Why is this statement confusing? Graphic showing relationships between radioactivity and detected ionizing radiation.

I thought radioactive ionizing radiation is not the same as non-radioactive ionizing radiation.

So you can pick up non-radioactive ionizing radiation and radioactive radiation and not know the difference?

So the father away you are the less strength the radioactive ionizing radiation decreases. The intervening medium can also absorb……

So what is meant by absorb radioactive radiation? We’re talking on an atomic level can air H2O catch and hold onto some of the radioactive ionizing radiation? Does it make that new absorbed product radioactive and pew radioactive ionizing radiation ? To what degree? What absorbs radioactive radiation?

……and scatter radioactive radiation .what does this scattering affect do? And can it make it travel farther than normal? As it scatters dose it make other atoms or particles radioactive?

Why do we have both dose or count ? Isn’t dose enough?

Radiation type? What kinds are there?

Physical dose is measured in grays. Why?

Bio dose in sieverts why? Are we both not Bio?

Why not one uniform radioactive radiation for everything?

The following table shows radiation quantities in SI and non-SI units.

References you can get on Wikipedia.

See my blog on Henri Becquerels book above. And ask lots of questions. If you know the answer to the questions above please email us ant enquirynews@gmail.com Thanks


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